Division of Pharmaceutics

Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen

What's New ?   


May: The Divison has been awarded about 150,000 EURO from the ZIM (Zentrales Innovationsprgramm Mittelstand) for 18 months research work into cryopelletization together with a Bavarian high tech company.

March: From March 10th to 12th two seminars in collabration with the Bayerische Landesapothekerkammer were held in Erlangen. Pharmacists from all over Germany in advanced training for the “Fachapotheker” for pharmaceutical analytics and pharmaceutical technology visited our department. The seminars “Stability and stabilization of pharmaceuticals” and “Biopharmacy” regularly take place in Erlangen since 2007 and are being organized by Stefan Seyferth, who is also one of the speakers of the seminar. We hope all of our guests had a good time in Erlangen!

.February: Geoff Lee, Sandra Wiedemann, Natalie Keil & Claudia Kunz  will again be presenting at the "Tag der Naturwissenschaft & Technk" held at Gymnasium Fridercianum Erlangen this month. The title is: 'Pharmazie: Geschichte einer Revolution', so let's hope it goes down well and interests some of the school students for pharmacy.

Geoff Lee has been invited to give a lecture on spray drying at the Spray drying Workshop University of Leeds on April 8th/9th. He'll be talking about applications with proteins at the bench-top scale. There is a further invitation to give a talk at the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science Symposium in Erlangen on 24th May this year. The title this time is: 'Dealing with recombinant proteins in a pharmaceutical setting: lyophilization versus spray drying'.

 January: All of the abstracts we submitted for the Lisbon conference have been accepted, including one podium presentation.   



November: We have submitted a number of abtracts to the  upcoming World Meeting on Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics in Lisbon next year (2014). Here they are as pdf downloads !

Vacuum-induced directional freezing

Spray drying and Arrhenius

Inactivation kinetic constants of catalase

Spray drying Liposomes

Residual solvent in thin polymer films

Sonosensitive nanostructures


July:  just like last year our sporty team took part in the soccer tournament of the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy. This year they were able to win one of their matches in the preliminary round, but unfortunately also twice lost points in the last second ! - Luck was not on our side! It was just goal difference that decided which match would be the last: a match for 7th place ! In a sizzling battle both teams showed themselves to be equal and like last year a penalty shoot-out had to make the difference. Our team lost 5:6... .. The team was handicapped by some injuries in pre-season training, so they are happy with 8th place out of 11 this time. Better luck next year!


The members of our small team from left to right:

Felix Wolf, Alex Grebner, Anders Kunst, Sandra Wiedemann, Thorsten Schäfer, Julia Staudenecker, Matthias Erber, Joachim Schäfer and Stefan Seyferth

March: Elke Lorenzen just successfully defended her PhD on using levitated microdroplets to determine the kinetics of protein damage during dring and particle formation. Well done ! Elke's successor will further develop the levitator to detect moisture in the outlet air stream and use FT-IR (and perhaps X-ray) to focus on the droplet/particle during drying. The centre of interest is the drying behaviour of latex colloids. Keep you posted on that.   

Geoff Lee has been invited to give a presentation at the ProCept Seminar on spray drying due to take place May 30 and 31 in Ghent, Belgium. The subject will be the spray drying of biomolecules and includes experience using the ProCept laboratory spray dryer and also studies using levitated microdroplets.     

February: Geoff Lee, Kristina Leuner, Julia Staudenecker, Sandra Wiedemann & Joachim Schäfer held a presentation at this year's "Tag der Naturwissenschaft und Technik" at a local Grammar School, Gymnasium Fridercianum. How do drugs work ? (wie wirken Arzneimittel)  is the title, and you can see the presentation here.  


November: we have just taken delivery of our new freeze dryer, a Virtis Genesis 25 EL 4 pilot size machine with 0.6 sqm shelf area and an automatic stoppering facility. We can now at last introduce the new "Freeze Drying" day into the technology practical. 

October: some good news: the DFG has granted Geoff Lee a further 95,000 Euros to complete the project examining the kinetics of drug release from ultra-thin polymer films.  

September: Second sporting highlight in 2012: The football tournament of the department of chemisty and pharmacy! After an extraordinary preliminary round (-14 goals, 0 points), our team made it with a last-minute goal in their game vs. physical chemistry to the penalty shoot-out and succeeded! After all: 7th place, well done!

Our outstanding team consisted of Anne Pauly, Carolin Wolf, Julia Staudenecker, Elke Lorenzen, scorer Sandra Wiedemann, Anders Kunst, Felix Wolf, Matthias Erber, goalkeeper Joachim Schäfer and head coach/team manager Stefan Seyferth.

The team also wants to thank all their fans for the great support out there.

By the way, rumour has it that they are in full training for next year's challenge.... So, watch out!

June: Anders Kunst, Felix Wolf and Sandra Wiedemann participated in the 17th Iron Chemist Triathlon, which is organized by the division for physical chemistry annually. With their awesome performance (5:10min/400m swimming, 37:10min/20km cycling, 20:10min/4km running), they really proved to be "Iron Chemists". Well, actually they are "Iron Pharmacists" - but don't tell that to the Chemists;-).:

February: Geoff Lee has given a presentation of spray freeze drying at one of Germany's largest companies. You can browse through the presentation here. 


December: the following abstracts have been accepted for the 8th World Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology being held in Istanbul in March next year:

Elke Lorenzen & Geoffrey Lee 'Slow motion picture of protein inactivatrion during spray drying: inactivation kinetics of L-glutamic hydrogenase dried in an ultrasonic levitator'.
Anne Mundstock & Geoffrey Lee 'Influence of water content on lamellarities of sprayed stratum corneum lipid films.
Sabine Ullrich, Stefan Seyferth & Geoffrey Lee  'Technique to determine kinetics of shrinkage and cracking of amorphous cakes during freez drying'.
Joachim Schäfer & Geoffrey Lee 'Investigations of particle size of spray dried protein powders and flowabilty measurements using a vibrating spatula'.

We're hoping that a couple of the abstracts will be accepted as podium presentations. Let`s wait and see !

August: Simone Reismann completed her PhD exam on August 2nd. Congratulations ! FMP Technology, Erlangen,  demonstrated their droplet generator at the division on August 4th. This nozzle generates a string of droplets via Rayleigh breakup. We are contemplating using this device to produce spray-dried large protein particles (project from Joachim Schäfer).   

July: Silke von Graberg  just finished her PhD examination: 'Freeze drying in small containers: vial heat transfer coefficients'. Well done !

June: We have submitted the following abstracts to the upcoming Meeting of the Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft in Innsbruck, Austria this year:

1) Elke Lorenzen & Geoffrey Lee 'Influence of different drying air humidities on the residual activity of single droplets of L-glutamic hydrogenase dried in an ultrasonic levitator'.
2) Anne Mundstock & Geoffrey Lee 'Preparation of artificial stratum corneum lipid films and matrices and determination of their lamellarities'.
3) Sabine Ullrich, Stefan Seyferth & Geoffrey Lee .Technique to determine kinetics of shrinkage and cracking of amorphous cakes during freeze-drying
4) Joachim Schäfer & Geoffrey Lee 'Influence of nozzle type on particle size and its consequence for flowabilty of spray dried protein powders'.

May: At long last our new professor for clinical pharmacy is here ! Prof Kristina Leuner has joined us from Frankurt and we be resposnsible for teaching and research in this subject !

March:  Congratulations to Georg Straller who successfully defended his PhD 'Regulating particle morphology during a spray freeze drying process and detecting protein structure using online light scattering'

February: On 17th Febraury Elke Lorenzen, Sabine Ullrich and I will again participate in a 'Tag der Naturwissenschaft & Technik' at a local grammar school - Gymnasium Fridericianum Erlangen. The talk will be about Pharmacy as a career, and also presents the art & science of pharmacy with demonstrations of making pills, granulation, and droplet/particle levitation. You can see the presentation here. 



December: Henning Gieseler's application for his habilitation has been passed by the Faculty of Natural Sciences. This is an important, big qualification in Germany, so congratulations on an excellent job done ! The title of his work is: 'Quality by design (QbD) in freeze-drying by using innovative process analytical technologies'. Henning studied phamacy in Würzburg before coming to Erlangen for his PhD. The first 18 months of his post-doc he spent with Prof Mike Pikal at UConn, and came back to Erlangen 1n 1996. He will be staying on in the Division until the beginning of 2013 -- there's still a lot to be done on freeze-drying !!  

June: Congratulations to Anke Sass who has just successfully defended her PhD entitled 'Spray drying of proteins from solvent-water mixtures'. 

May: Geoff Lee has been appointed to the Scientific Advisory Board of the Institute of Medical Engineering in Oxford. The Institute has recently been awarded a very large grant by the Welcome Foundation/EPSRC to examine 'Personalised Healthcare', and one of the projects concerns drug delivery.   

April: Sebastian Vonhoff has finished his PhD with an excellent examination. His thesis is called: 'Influence of atomization conditions on protein secondary and tertiary structure during microparticle formation by spray freeze drying'. This was the second time we have been through the faculty's new type of doctoral examination -- it's an improvement over the old type of exam since a proper 'defence' of the research project now is offered. Our newest post-grad , Ulrike Pohl, also started this month. Good luck !  The search committee for our new W2 Professorship in molecular and clinical pharmacy has just approved advertising the position. This will be an important post for pharmacy in Erlangen, so let's hope that we receive lots of good applications for the job ! 

January: Geoff Lee will be giving an invited presentation at the 'ECA Spray Drying Conference' to be held in Copenhagen 20-22 April 2010. The talk is entitled: 'Spray drying on laboratory scale'.


December: Stefan Schneid completed his PhD exam successfully with the thesis entitled: 'Investigation of process analytical technology (PAT) tools for use in freeze-drying equipment'. And there is some further good news from the research area: Geoff Lee has just been awarded 95,000€ from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG = German Research Foundation) for a project looking at interactions of drugs in thin polymer films and skin lipid matrices used to prepare transdermal systems. This work involves problems such as the determination of saturation solubilities in rubbery polymers and the influence of the degree of saturation on diffusional processes -- all good stuff.             

November: we are submitting the following abtracts to the upcoming World Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology to be held in Malta next year:
1) Georg Straller, T. Semo, Gerhard Winter & Geoffrey Lee 'Spray freeze drying of carbonic anhydrase with online light scattering, assymetrical field flow fractionation vs SEC'.
2) Elke Lorenzen & Geoffrey Lee 'Determination of protein inactivation caused by thermal stress via microdroplet levitation : drying kinetics of alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase solution'.
3) Anne Mundstock & Geoffrey Lee '
Measurement of drug solubility in a gel crystalline (Lb) phase of hydrated stratum corneum lipids'. 

September: Harald Pudritz has finished his PhD and passed the exam with his thesis on 'Influence of formulation variables on the in vitro deposition of spray-dried respirable particles'.    

August: There is some splendid news from Oxford ! Our 'old boy' Dr Heiko Schiffter has been appointed as Lecturer in Engineering Science at the Institute of Biomedical Engineering in Oxford University. He will be a Fellow of St Cross College. Heiko has been a post-doc in Oxford for the last four years or so, and now will be there on a permanent basis. Heiko is the only pharmacist appointed to such a position in Oxford. And he is certainly one of the few German  nationals there as a tenured academic !      

July: The faculty's new 'InfoDay' was pretty successful and we had a fair bit of interest for our pharmacy degree programme. Britta Schröder finished her excellent PhD this month on a new electrochemical transdermal system. Also, Harald Pudritz has left us after completing the writing of his thesis. He'll take his PhD exam in the autumn.  And, not forgetting our new group picture:




April: George Straller, one of our PhD students, has just passed his examination as 'Fachapotheker für Pharmazeutische Technologie'. It's not an easy exam, so well done Georg !

March: On 18th March Simone Reismann, Elke Lorenzen and I will participate in the 'Tag der Technik' at one of the local grammar schools (Gymnasium Fridericianum Erlangen). He will talk about Pharmacy as a career, and also discuss the M.Sc. Pharmacy Programme at Erlangen University. There will be 2 demonstrations: Simone will present the old art of making pills, and Elke will show the new concepts of droplet/particle levitation. Hence the title of the presentation: 'Defeating Newton, and Other Things'. Eva Wulsten has just finished writing-up her Ph. D. thesis with the title 'Determination of droplet surface temperature and drying kinetics of protein solutions using a ultrasonic levitator'.  And, Eva Meister has passed her PhD exmination this month, with an excellent piece of research on the 'Methodology, data interpretation and practical transfer of freeze-dry miocroscopy'  supervised by Dr Henning Gieseler.  Henning has also organised the 5th Erlangen Freeze Drying Seminar this month (fully booked).

January: We have three new PhD projects for which we require post-grad students ! The research themes concern freeze-drying of biologicals, investigation of glass properties of mixed amorphous/crystalline systems, and polymer research for new transdermal systems. You might have seen the advertisement in the 'Pharmazeutische Zeitung', so if you are interested please send in your appplication asap (well known to native speakers: 'as soon as possible').      



October: This month our PhD student Harald Pudritz successfully passed his examination as 'Fachapotheker für Pharmazeutische Technologie'. Congratulations ! Other news: the department again had a stand at the Technopharm exhibition in Nürnberg. It was perhaps a little disappointing that the exhibition's visitors were not really orientated to pharmaceutics. Most likely, we will give the next exhibition in 2010 a miss.  The next Erlangen freeze drying seminar will take place in March/April 2009. Book quickly to ensure you receive a place !!  The Swiss company Büchi chose Erlangen to host its spray drying seminar on October 15th. It was fully booked and a great success.     

May: Prof Lee has been invited to give a talk on 'Spray Drying in Lab Scale' at the International 'Spray Drying' Seminar organised by Concept Heidelberg. This seminar will be held December 3 -4 at Niro in Copenhagen: http://www.concept-heidelberg.de/

April: The recent Erlangen Freeze Drying Seminar was, once again, fully booked and a fine success. You can view the happy participants at this link:  http://www.freeze-drying.eu/html/pictures.html . Congratulations to Henning Gieseler whose idea this is and who does all of the organisation. Prof Lee will be giving a presentation at the seminar 'Particle Design for APIs and Drug Products' to be held in Brussels on September 9-10. The talk's title is 'Development of the Supersonic Microparticle'. More details are available at: http://www.informa-ls.com/particle.

April: And some more good news has just arrived in the post. The German Research Foundation (DFG) has approved financing of a first extension to our project on single droplet drying levitation of protein solutions (DFG Le 626/8-2). A total of approximately 95,000 will be provided over the next two years. This project is important to us, because it will enable a direct investigation of the kinetics of protein damage during drying both before and after the critical point of drying. Apart from its obvious relevance for optimising drying processes with sensitive biomolecules, this work with the levitator is simply new and original.   

March: there is some very fine news from England. Heiko Schiffter PhD  has just been appointed as a Junior Research Fellow in Brasenose College, Oxford. This is a wonderful opportunity to be associated with such a well-known institution. 

February: Jürgen Bögelein hat just sucessfully completed his PhD examination. The title of his thesis -- available online -- is: 'Influence of amorphous adjuvents on the enzymatic activity of spray dried catalase and lysozyme'.  



December: Prof Lee has been invited to give a presentation in the Department of Pharmacy at Munich University on Janury 24. The subject will be the drying behaviour of levitated microdroplets as a model for protein spray drying, as summarised in  the title of the talk: ''Wingardium leviosa !' Or the art of levitation of microdroplets'. Of course, Harry Potter will be putting in an appearance.

October: Peter Lassner successfully defended his thesis and past his PhD exam. His research title was: 'Spray drying an IgG fragment:creating a storage stable form'. We have submitted the following abstracts to the upcoming International Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics to be held in Barcelona next year:

Georg Straller & Geoffrey Lee: Determination of protein aggregation during spray-freeze-drying of carbonic anhydrase with online light scattering.
Eva Wulsten & Geoffrey Lee: Drying behaviour of levitated trehalose microdroplets: surface temperature measurements and drying behaviour.
Harald Pudritz & Geoffrey Lee: Impaction behaviour of spray dried methylene blue in mannitol or trehalose particles in mixture with respirable lactose.
Anke Sass & Geoffrey Lee:Spray drying of dissaccharides from various aqueous mixtures: sprayability, particle morphology and residual solvents.

June: Andreas Ziegeler passed his continued learning examination as a 'Fachapotheker für Pharmazeutische Technolgie', on which we congratulate him ! Janssen Pharmazeutica will be sponsoring a new (post-)graduate student position in the Department. The project concerns  the freeze drying of nanosuspensions.  

March: We were present at the Technopharm meeting in Nürnberg again this year. Although the first day was unusually quiet, things picked up on the last two days. It was a great pleasure to meet some old Heidelberg colleagues (GR, EB, JH) and chat about old times. Again, our thanks to the APV for making our presence possible.  Prof. Lee has been invited to give a presentation 'Spray drying of peptide and proteins' at the forthcoming Johnson and Johnson Spray Drying Seminar in Beerse. The talk can be seen here.  



December: the Christmas party !

November: Henning Gieseler presented his research group and ideas to the Faculty in a recent presentation. Our new light scattering detector has just arrived and been installed by Wyatt onto one of our HPLCs. This powerful detection method will enable us to examine in quantitaive detail how protein molecules are aggregated or unfolded during technical processes such as spray, freezing and drying.

July 2006:
Andreas Ziegler successfully defended his PhD thesis entitled 'Needle-free injection: attrition forces acting on spray-dried and spray-freeze-dried protein-loaded particles with needle-free injectors'.

July 2006: The German Research Foundation (DFG) will has just announced funding for our continuing project on examination of changes in protein structure induced by atomization and drying processes (DFG Le 626 7-2). The total sum of 130 000 Euros awarded will provide us with 2 new light-scattering detectors for static and dynamic measurements. When attached to an HPLC/SEC unit we can now determine aggregate molecular weight (static scattering) and also hydrodynamic diameters (dynamic scattering) of our proteins. This type of on-line detection will greatly advance our protein analysis capability. The news about the DFG funding was therefore excellent, and we are thrilled about this success !     

June 2006: Henning Wegner successfully defended his PhD this month. The subject was an examination of the compaction properties of powders prepared by the concentrated powder form technique. This project was sponsored by Rapps Foundation.   

March 2006: it's been a couple of years since our last Postdoc, Wolfgang Friess, finished here and took up his post as associate Prof in Munich. At last we have a new Postdoc, Henning Gieseler, who started his work here in February. Henning took his PhD in Erlangen, before leaving for the US to work for 1 1/2 years with Mike Pikal at UConn. His new research group works on freeze drying of biologicals and, especially, on process analytical technology (acronym = PAT). His has already brought a freeze drying microscope with him, which will be followed this month by a new 'super freeze dryer' working an intelligent principles. You can check out his activities at:           

February 2006: ...and the next PhD thesis is already there ! Alex Mauerer's work on 'Secondary structural changes of spray dried proteins with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy' is finished.

January 2006: Heiko Schiffter has just finished his dissertation entitled: 'Single droplet drying of proteins and protein formulations using acoustic levitation' (download here: watch out ! 13 MB !). This is our first PhD using the levitator into examine the drying kinetics of droplets of a protein solution. Heiko will be starting a Post-doc in February at the Department of Medical Engineering at Oxford University. This will certainly be great experience, and we all wish him well.    



October 2005: Geoffrey Lee has been invited to give a presentation 'Stabilization of Spray Dried Proteins using Adjuvents' at the IQPC conference 'Particle 2006' to be held in February 2006 in Berlin.  Heiko Schiffter is presenting a poster of his work at the upcoming AAPS Annual Meeting in Nashville. The title is: Determination of Single Droplet Drying Kineticsof Protein Solutions via Acoustic Levitation.

October 2005: Our new workshop engineer Josef Hubert will take up his post at the department on October 4th. We all wish him well in the new job at our department! Our stand at the TechnoPharm Exhibition in Nürnberg was very attractive this year. The T-shirts hanging on the washing line were a great favourite, as well as the wine bottles. We had two presentations at the accompanying Life Sciences Conference: Heiko Schiffter talked about droplet drying kinetics of proteins measued with the levitator, and Jürgen Bögelein presented some results about the effects of drying air temperature on the stabilizing influence of trehalose on spray dried catalase. You can download photos of the stand here.      

September 2005: Stefan Seyferth has been invited by Büchi for a presentation on "Spray drying vs. Freeze drying - methods and major differences" at the Büchi Seminar "Concentration, Drying and Chromatography". The talk will be held at the congress center in Basel on Wednesday, September 21st.

September 2005: A recent photo of us all.

August 2005: the German Research Foundation (DFG) has provided approximately 125,000 EURO to finance the single droplet drying levitator project. Most importantly, we can now purchase an infra-red camera to determine the surface temperature of a drying droplet of a protein solution. Additionally we can purchase a special microsyringe unit for making very fine droplets of diameter in the micrometer range. A new PhD studentship has also been financed, so all-in-all it was a successful proposal !

Juli 2005: This month we have had 3 finished PhD theses which are available here to download. Katya Lahm: 'Investigation on intradermal delivery of drug powder by needle-free injection'; Michael Maury: 'Aggregation and structural changes in spray dried immunoglobulins'; Christian Rochelle: 'Spray freeze dried protein powders for needle-free injection'.  

May 2005: Our workshop engineer, Winifried Bauer, will be retiring at the end of this month after some 15 years' service to the department. We wish him all the best for his retirement and hope that he now has plenty of time to get on  with the gardening at home !! He successor, Herr Hubert, will be starting in October.

April 2005:
Raczek is providing the department with one of its modern freeze-drying microscopes. This device allows a direct examination and determination of the freezing and melting behaviour of formulations, and is essential for measuring values such as Tc . The device will be supervised by Henning Gieseler, the department's current post-doc. Contract measurements for external companies can be carried out in a professional and rapid way. Please contact either Henning Gieseler (gieseler@pharmacist.de) or Geoffrey Lee (lee@pharmtech.uni-erlangen.de) for more information.     

Miltyni Biotech's financed PhD position will be starting in the department on July 1, 2005. The title of the research project is: 'Atypical Container Systems in Freeze Drying: Investigation of Formulation and Process Strategies Delineated for Two Different Sample Proteins'.

January/May 2005:
Geoffrey Lee will be giving an overview presentation of the research programme on protein stabilization as part of the Institute for Pharmacy's Chemistry Colloquium. The date for the talk is Thursday May 12, at 20:15 in the lecture theatre of the Schuhstrasse. You can download the talk here as a pdf file (watch out ! Itis partly in German).



October 2004: Geoffrey Lee has been invited by the Medical Engineering Unit (MEU) at the University of Oxford to give a presententation of work on the use of spray-freeze drying and spray drying to produce particles suitable for needle-free delivery. The talk will be held at MEU (43, Banbury Road, Oxford) on Wednesday November 3rd at 14:30. A pdf file of the presentation can be downloaded here.

Our first continuing education seminar ('Weiterbildungsseminar') is to be held in the department on October 27/28. The theme is 'Freeze Drying in Practice', and is aimed at industrial scientists struggling to cope with the complexities of this process for use with peptides and proteins. Next year we plan to hold a further seminar about spray drying of proteins. (PS, the seminar was completely booked-out and a good success ! You can see a few photographs here.)   

Katya Lahm has finished her PhD thesis entitled: 'Investigation of intradermal delivery of drug powder by needle-free injection'. This project was the first to be conducted under the joint research programme with PowderJect, UK. 

July 2004: Milton Biotech will be financing a new PhD position and research project to examine the freeze-drying of biologicals. The research project will be starting this autumn. Doris Köpper has just defended her PhD thesis sucessfully. She worked on the development of special cream bases containing volatile oils, but made up exclusively of natural ingredients. Her thesis is available here for download.  

May 2004: Prof Lee will be giving an invited presentation at the seminar on 'Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceuticals & Biologicals' to be held in Breckenridge, CO, USA, in July this year. The presentation is entitled: 'Spray Drying of Pharmaceuticals' and will present a brief overview of protein spray drying as well as some result from our single droplet drying levitator.   Henning Gieseler has just completed his PhD thesis 'Product morphology and drying behavior delineated by a new freeze-drying microbalance' (pdf download). He will be leaving this summer for the States to do a 2 years' post-doc with  Prof. Mike Pikal.

Starting July 1st Abbott will be supporting a research project on the spray drying of Fab fragments for use in sustained release, parenteral systems. A PhD position will be fully financed in the Department of Pharmaceutics.

March 2004:
In June Prof. Lee will be giving an invited talk at the 'Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft' in Kiel. The title is: 'Problems with the stability of protein-loaded powders for inhalation'.

February 2004: Our new 'akademischer rat', Dr. Stefan Seyferth, takes up his new post on February 2. Dr Seyferth graduated in pharmacy at Erlangen, before taking up his PhD studies in Pharmaceutics. His knowledge and experience will be a great boost to the Department ! We all wish him well in the new job ! His predecessor, Dr. Gerhard Simon, decided to leave Erlangen for personal reasons and take up a similar post in Munich. We also wish him well and a good start in the 'big' (in Bavarian terms) city.      

January 2004: Christian Führling has finished his PhD thesis entitled: 'Interactions between proteins, sugars and surfactants: dynamic studies on adsorption at interfaces'.



October 2003: We have submitted the following abstracts for the upcoming International Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, to be held in Nürnberg between 15th and 18th March 2004:

1. Heiko Schiffter & Geoffrey Lee 'Protein spray drying: single droplet drying kinetics via levitation'. Abstract.
2. Christian Rochelle & Geoffrey Lee 'Protein spray freeze drying: avoid amorphous mannitol'. Abstract.
3. Jürgen Bögelein & Geoffrey Lee 'Influence of amorphous mannitol on spray dried mixtures of trehalose and dextran'. Abstract.
4. Alexander Mauerer & Geoffrey Lee 'FT-IR examination of secondary structural changes in spray dried poly-L-lysine'. Abstract.
5. Doris Köpper & Geoffrey Lee 'DSC as a means to characterise the external phase in water-in-oil (w/o) formulations'. Abstract.
6. Michael Maury & Geoffrey Lee 'Recovery optimisation of a bench-top spray dryer'. Abstract.  
7. Henning Gieseler & Geoffrey Lee,  

September 2003: Henning Gieseler will be presenting a poster at the upcoming AAPS meeting in Salt Lake City. Title: Microbalance study of drying rate and morphology of spray freeze dried powders. Stefan Seyferth has finished  his PhD project and will be taking his exam shortly. The title of his dissertation is: 'Precipitation and conformational changes of calcitonin induced by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid.' 

July 2003: Prof. Lee has received 15,000 Euros from the DFG to support his projects examining changes in protein structure occuring during the various process steps of spray drying and spray freeze drying, viz atomisation, convective drying, rapid droplet freezing.

March 2003: We have three posters at the upcoming meeting of the CRS German Chapter in Munich. These concern freeze drying using a microbalance technique, use of FT-IR to examine protein secondary structural changes during spray drying and inactivation studies of catalase during the process steps of spray freeze drying.

March 2003:
The Adalbert-Raps-Stiftung is supporting a new research project in the department, concerning the potential pharmaceutical application of a new spray coating process (concentrated powder form). A newly financed PhD position will conduct detailed research into the compression physics and tabletting/pelleting of new, inovative powders. 

February 2003: The European Patent Office has overturned the European patent owned by Inhale about glassy stabilisation of proteins (see below, June 2001). The judgement will be published presently. We'll keep you informed !

January 2003:
Niro, Copenhagen, is sponsoring the develoment of our single droplet drying levitator. Some 14,000 Euro have been provided. Many thanks for this generosity which is greatly appreciated !! 




November 2002: we are in the process of setting up a single droplet drying levitator to examine the drying of droplets of a protein solution. This device was conceived in the Department of Fluid Mechanics (Prof. Durst) in Erlangen. We are building our own maschine and intend to examine protein  droplet drying both qualitatively and quantitively as a model for spray drying. More info is available here.   

September 2002: Prof Lee will be giving an invited talk for the Hamburg chapter of the Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft on February 4, 2003. The title is: ''Herstellung stabiler protein-beladener Pulver zur pulmonaren oder parenteralen Anwendung".
August 2002: Prof Lee has been invited to give a presentation at the 2003 meeting of the Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft in Würzburg: 'Thoughts on the topical use of 5 amino levulinic acid during photodynamic therapy'. He has also been invited to present a talk at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Dermatopharmazie in Bonn: 'Self-adhesive thin films for topical delivery of 5 amino levulinic acid'. (Unfortunately I cannot go !).

April 2002: The DFG has approved a further 57,000 DM to Prof. Lee for the project: 'Interactions between proteins and surfactants during particle formation on spray-drying'.



December 2001: Prof Lee will be giving an invited talk on 'Spray Drying to Produce Fine Particles of Stable Protein Formulations' at AAPS's upcoming Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery Conference to be held in Arlingtonm, VA, on April 22- 24, 2002.

October 2001: We are submitting the following abstracts to the 4th World Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology in Florence, April 2002:

Stefan Seyferth & Geoffrey Lee: 'EDTA-induced fibrillation of salmon calcitonin: an FT-IR study.' Abstract.
Christian Führling & Geoffrey Lee: 'Spray drying of proteins: protein/surfactant interactions in spray solutions.' Abstract.
Ruzia Serafimoska & Geoffrey Lee: 'Spray drying of ptroteins: glass properties of sugar surfactants.'
Christine Sonner & Geoffrey Lee: 'Spray freeze drying of proteins: causes of inactivation of trypsinogen.' Abstract.
Henning Gieseler & Geoffrey Lee: 'The Influence of Packing Density on Continuously Measured Drying Rate Using Microbalance Technique.' Abstract.

September 2001: We shall be back at the TechnoPharm exhibition between 8 and 10 October 2002. As always, guests are more than welcome to pop by, say hello, and hear the news. This time, the stand will have lots of 'movement' ! Take care !

July 2001: Our post-doc, Wolfgang Friess, has just got the C3 position (associate Prof) in the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology in Munich. Congratulations Wolfgang ! You did a great job ! Wolfgang will be taking up his new appointment on October 1, 2001.

June 2001: The High Court of Justice in London decided that a UK patent owned by Inhale and concerning glassy stabilisation of proteins is invalid. Check out the judgement and read what Justice Laddie thought of the case and the witnesses.  The case did NOT go to appeal !

March 2001: Our faculty of Natural Sciences (Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy) has introduced a new undergraduate degree program called `Molecular Sciences'. It plans to take in upto 30 students per year.

January 2001: Tony Hickey from UNC Chapel Hill will give a presentation in the Department on 30 January entitled: Powder properties for pulmonary inhalers.

January 2001: At the Annual Meeting of the Controlled Release Society German Chapter, Saarbrücken, 2 February 2001, both Marc Fitzner and Stefan Seyferth will be holding podium presentations on: 'Effect of spray drying conditions and excipients on protein formulations' (Fitzner) and 'Investigations of peptide/EDTA complexes for
subcutaneous delivery' (Seyferth).

January 2001: Our new Senior Academic Advisor, Dr. Gerhard Simon, takes up his appointment on January 16. Dr Simon comes to us from industry, so his experience will invaluable to us in both teaching and research ! All the members of the Department wish him a good start in his new job here !



December 2000: The following abstracts have been accepted by the Annual Meeting of the Controlled Release Society German Chapter, Saarbrücken, 2 February 2001:

1)  Christine Sonner & Geoffrey Lee, 'Stability of trypsinogen during spray-freeze-drying'. 3) Stefan Seyferth & Geoffrey Lee, 'Investigations of peptide/EDTA complexes for subcutaneous
delivery'. 4) Christian Führling & Geoffrey Lee, 'Measurement of dynamic surface tension of proteins, sugars and surfactants as well as their mixtures using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry'. 5) Florin Radu & Wolfang Friess, 'Collagen matrices for parenteral application - modelling of swelling and drug release'. 6) Nadia Barozzi & Wolfgang Friess, 'Evaluation of the USP drug release test apparatus 4 (flow-through cell) for characterization of rhBMP-2 loaded implantable carriers'. The complete book of conference abstracts is available here.

December 2000:
Our excursion in WS 2000/2001 will be to Fa. Klinge in Munich on Wednesday December 13, 2000.

December 2000: Prof. Lee presents talk at APV Seminar Solvent Free Granulation, March 27, 2001: 'Continous melt granulation'.

October 2000: The Department will again have a stand at the upcoming Technopharm Exhibition in Nürnbnerg, March 27-29, 2001. Stop by for a cup of coffee and a chat !

February 2000:
Prof. Lee gives an invited talk at the Colorado Protein Stability Conference, University of Colorado, July 2000: 'Interfacial interactions between sugars, proteins and surfactants during spray-drying'.

May 2000: Prof. Lee gives televised talk for Collegium Alexandrinum at Erlangen University entitled: 'Neue Möglichkeiten der Verabreichung von Arzneistoffen' (New Possibilities for Drug Delivery).



March 1999: The Annual Meeting of the Controlled Release Society, German Chapter, is being held in Erlangen on Friday March 19. We have 13 podium presentations by graduate students as well as numerous posters. We expect some 70 guests ! You can down load the pdf abstracts of the conference here.

July 1999
: Prof. Lee has received approx. 115,000 DM from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) to conduct research into: 'Complex- formation of peptides & small proteins to control their in vitro and in vivo release rate'.

December 1999:
Prof. Lee has been awarded approx. 150,000 DM from the DFG to conduct a research project entitled: 'Interactions between proteins and surfactants during particle formation on spray-drying'.

January 1999
: Dr Frieß has been awarded a further 100 000 DM from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of a joint project with the Institute of Material Sciences - Department for Glass and Ceramics in Erlangen (Prof. Greil). The title of the work is: 'Accumulation and Activation of Cellular Structures by Biocompatible Functional Gradient Materials'. This financing has enabled a cell culture laboratory to be set up in the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology.